An administrative District of Odisha in eastern India, Boudh District is also known as Baudha District. The District is bounded by River Mahanadi & Angul District to the north, Kandhamal District to the south, Nayagarh District to the east and River Tel & Subarnapur District to the west. Covering a geographical area of 3444.8 sq km, the District lies 20 degree 22’ to 20 degree 50’ North Latitude and 83 degree 34’ to 84 degree 49’ East Longitude.
As per the demography is concerned, the District has got total population of 441162 people with sex ratio 991 Females per 1000 Males (2011 Census),including total 221625 male population and 219537 female population. It ranks Boudh is 22nd in size and 29th in population among the thirty districts of Odisha.Total SC population of the District is 104934 and ST population is 55364 as per 2011 census.
administration is concerned, there is one sub division namely Boudh, 3 Tahasils, 3 Blocks, 1186 Villages and 69 Gram Panchayats functioning in the District.
The climatic condition of Boudh is much varied. The district comes under the ambit of Western Central Table Land characterized by hot and moist sub-humid climate. It has mainly 4 seasons. The summer season is from March to Mid June, the period from Mid June to September is the Rainy season, October and November constitute the post monsoon season and winter is from December to February. The best time to visit this district is during winter.
There is a meteorological observatory in the district. The data of this observatory may be taken as representative of the meteorological condition of the whole district. The month of May as the hottest month reach to a daily maximum temperature of 44 degree Celsius. In association with the passage of western disturbances across north India during winter months, short spells of cold occur and the temperature drops down to 10 degree Celsius.The average annual rainfall of the district is 1510.33 mm. However there is a great variation of rainfall from year to year.
Majority of the land area of Boudh district is under gross crop area i.e. 1,36,000 hectors (as per Statistical records 2012) and forest area covers94,952.11 hectors. The district is well connected with other districts. The bounties of nature has endowed the district with rich forest abound in Sal, Sisal, Bija, Asana, Mahua flower trees etc. Forest produce of economic importance of the district mainly consists of Kendu Leaf, Tamarind, Mahua Flower and Seeds, Sal Seeds etc. tigers, elephants and spotted dears are the wild animal species residing in Boudh district. Collection of minor forest produce is the major source of livelihood of the people in the district. There is a crocodile sanctuary namely Satakoshia Ganda at Tikarpada that attracts tourists from far places.
The district has only one town Boudh, the headquarters of the district which is very small towns having a population 8,891 and20,424 according to 1971 and 2011 Census respectively. Boudh town is managed by a Notified Area Council,Boudhgarh.
The district Boudh covers fertile plains and hilly zones. This area consists of a long strip of level land running parallel to the Mahanadi. Many small streams, tributary rivers, fountain (locally called jhor) find their way to the Mahanadi. The river line plains of Boudh are drained by the tributaries of the Mahanadi while the southern and the western region are drained by the tributaries of the Tel.
The district may be broadly divided into two distinct physical divisions; the plain legion in the north and the highlands in the south.
Between the high mountain ranges of the Harabhanga in the south and the river Mahanadi in the north forming the northern boundary of the district lie the fertile plains of Boudh. The district consists of a long strip of level land running parallel to the Mahanadi with gradual undulating rises to the hill ranges which form the Khondmals. The natural features of the country lend themselves to irrigation, thehills of the southern border forming a natural watershed from which many small streams find their way to the Mahanadi. The hills on the southern border and the district along their foot are thickly covered with forests.
As we know the rivers are the main source of ancient habitation, the importance of major rivers in this area cannot be ignored.
The river Mahanadi played an important role for the development of pre-historic culture in this region. The river which originates from the Amarakantaka hill range of Madhyapradesh flows downwards in a South-East direction. The cultural pattern is generally same in the entire Mahanadi valley. Culturally, the river Mahanadi is divided into three important parts liked the upper Mahanadi valley, middle Mahanadi and the lower Mahanadi valley. The district of Boudh comes under the middle Mahanadi valley. The river Mahanadi is considered as an ancient river of India which is evident from the Mahabharata and other puranic texts. Boudh is the only district in Odishain where this has a touch almost in all areas. It appears as a necklace on the body of Boudh. This river is a perennial one like the Ganges and the Yamuna.
The Bagh rises in the hills near Bandhagarh of the Phulabani hill tract and falls into the Mahanadi flowing for about 64 k.m.s. This river also has pre-historic sites.
The Salki rises in the Baliguda sub-division of Phulbani district but has a real touch in the district of Boudh.
So far as the pre-historic culture of this region is concerned, these rivers played a significant role. Besides these rivers like the fountain and small streams (locally known as jhor) like the Meheruni, Ramjal, Atharnala, Digi etc. are having pre-historic treasure.
Lake and Tanks
No lake occurs in the district. There are a large number of tanks. Lakes and The Government tanks have been transferred to the control of the Tanks GramaPanchayats for taking up pisciculture. Besides, they too are used for bathing and irrigation purposes.
Industry is a source which has lately been contributing to the growth of Boudh District’s economy. A number of small scale industries functions here. They are food based, metallurgical based, textile based, forest based, engineering based and chemical based. Mining industry is another industry which is quite developed and from which the District earns substantial revenues. More than 6000 weavers are engaged in the textile zone of this District.
The total cultivable area of this District is more than eighty five thousand hectares, with paddy land constituting approximately sixty four thousand hectares. Other crops are grown over an area more than twentyone thousand hectares. Irrigation projects, diversion weirs and dug wells somewhat help in sustaining the agriculture of this District. Paddy, wheat, maize, ragi, mung, biri, kulthi, groundnut and mustard etc are some of the major crops grown here.
There are many festivals in the Boudh District that are celebrated by total population of Boudh with great enthusiasm and faith. Festivals like Chuda Khai Jatra, Ratha Yatra, Laxmi Puja, Nuakhai, Shivaratri, Dasahara, Dola Jatra, Puajiuntia and Bhaijiuntia, Ramaleela, Kailashi Jatra, Christmas, Id–Ul–Fitre are the important festivals of the District.